See Stamp Rare

Italy Lomellina 1842 USED Very Rare Official Mail (see foto) Special

Italy Lomellina 1842 USED Very Rare Official Mail (see foto) Special
Italy Lomellina 1842 USED Very Rare Official Mail (see foto) Special
Italy Lomellina 1842 USED Very Rare Official Mail (see foto) Special
Italy Lomellina 1842 USED Very Rare Official Mail (see foto) Special
Italy Lomellina 1842 USED Very Rare Official Mail (see foto) Special

Italy Lomellina 1842 USED Very Rare Official Mail (see foto) Special   Italy Lomellina 1842 USED Very Rare Official Mail (see foto) Special

ITALY 1800's USED SPECIAL LETTER. Condition: Check the Picture, please. All items are absolutely guaranteed to be genuine and as described. Italy is one of the founding countries of the Universal Postal Union (UPU; since 1875), and Poste italiane is its postal operator. In the Roman Republic, messengers and stations existed for government and private purposes.

Under Emperor Augustus, the state transport system cursus publicus was significantly developed. Only between the numerous ramifications of spiritual orders was proper communication maintained, through the medium of wandering monks. At universities, where students flocked from various countries, corporations of professional messengers were formed, enjoying various privileges.

In the XII-XIII centuries, messengers from universities in Bologna, Salerno, and Naples were famous[3]. With the development of city liberties, one of the most important means of communication was the institution of city messengers, which existed almost everywhere since the 14th century, but was especially developed in large shopping centers in Germany and Italy.

From southern Germany the messengers of Augsburg maintained communications with Italy; they arrived in Venice via the Brenner in eight days[3]. Thurn and Taxis Post Main article: Thurn y Taxis Post Later, the name of the post in Italy, as in other advanced countries of that time, began to mean the whole set of institutions that were established by the state or under the control of the state for sending both government and private correspondence and for the transport of passengers [3]. This organization, which at first had a very modest size, was significantly expanded in 1516: postal lines for connecting with the Habsburg possessions in Italy were extended to Rome and Naples. The main postal route was the Brussels-Vienna-Italy line[3]. Pre-unification period and first stamps The postal history of Italy in the 19th century, before the creation of a single state in 1861, is associated with small independent states of the Apennine Peninsula, which had postal services and issued their own stamps[5].

The reform became law in November and took effect on January 1, 1851. These include Tuscany (April 1851), the Papal States (January 1852), Modena (June 1852), Parma (June 1852), the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Kingdom of Naples - January 1858; Kingdom of Sicily - January 1859), Romagna (September 1859). The Lombardo-Venetian kingdom was under Austrian rule, and Austrian stamps were in circulation there, issued specifically for Lombardo-Venice with denominations in local currency[5][9]. Moreover, in Modena, Parma and Romagna, the transition took place on February 1, 1860, in Naples on September 15, 1862 (although the local authorities had previously printed stamps with the image of the coat of arms of Savoy), and in the Papal States - only in 1870 [7]. After the unification of Italy, the replacement by one postal administration of the previously existing seven met with difficulties due to the significant difference in the culture of the northern and southern provinces, as well as the huge number of illiterates. Nevertheless, the postal business soon achieved considerable success in Italy, being in some respects adapted to the peculiarities of the country. So, for example, at more significant post offices, special rooms were arranged for compiling letters; Postal orders (vaglia postali consolari) were accepted at Italian consulates to make it easier for Italians living abroad to send savings back to their homeland[3]. In February-October 1862, the fourth definitive issue stamps of the Kingdom of Sardinia were issued with an embossed profile of Victor Emmanuel II, printed in a changed size and with perforation. These were the first perforated stamps in Italy[9][11].

From January 1, 1863, universal postal rates were introduced in Italy, sending a simple letter began to cost 15 centesimo instead of 20. In this regard, a stamp with a face value of 15 centesimo was issued, repeating the pattern and design of the stamps of the fourth definitive issue of Sardinia [9]. In addition, the impression was that he would not be able to make stamps. Matrera, who in February 1863 printed a stamp with a face value of 15 centesimo by lithographic method.

It depicted the profile of King Victor Emmanuel II and the inscription "Postale italiano". The stamp was withdrawn from circulation along with the "Sardinian" issues on December 31, 1863[9].

The contract with Count P. Sparre was canceled in March 1863, and a new contract was given to the British printer De La Rue. The first series of eight stamps of the Kingdom of Italy in denominations from 1 centesimo to 2 lire entered circulation on December 1, 1863.

The 1 centesimo miniature depicted the denomination figure in a curly frame, the rest had a portrait of King Victor Emmanuel II and the inscription "Poste italiane" ("Italian Post"). On October 9, 1874, Italy signed the Universal Postal Code. Convention[3], and on July 1, 1875, among the founders, she became a member of the UPU[2]. At the Lisbon Universal Postal Congress of 1885[de] Italy joined the interstate agreement on the extension of the operation of postal orders[de] (riscossione) to their mutual relations[3]. From August 1877, Italian stamps began to be printed in the Turin printing house[12].

In 1878, King Umberto succeeded to the Italian throne. The new series used tariffs and colors prescribed by the UPU. Since 1889, the management of the postal business, connected with the telegraph part, was entrusted in Italy to a special ministry, which had 10 inspectors to supervise the provincial institutions.

In each of the 69 provinces, a post and telegraph directorate was formed. Post offices (uffizi) were divided into two classes; in addition, there were postal agencies (collettorie) [3]. According to data on the number and activities of postal institutions, in Italy in 1894 there were[3]: 6183 post offices, which averaged one post office per 47.9 sq. Km and 4682 inhabitants of this country; 538,628,000 postal items, including: 303,730 thousand letters, 63,430 thousand open letters, 252,256 thousand printed works, 2988 thousand postal orders and 782 thousand parcels.

There were an average of 17.3 postal items per Italian resident. The basic rate for forwarding simple closed letters in Italy was 20 centesimos. At the UPU Congress in Washington in 1897[de], Italy acceded to an interstate agreement under which governments mutually undertook to deliver periodicals published within their territories at the same prices as and domestic subscribers, with a surcharge only for possible transit costs; in the country of destination, commissions and similar surcharges could be made, but they should not go beyond the limits set for domestic subscribers of that country. Not exceeding 5000 francs were accepted. The maximum amount for which postal orders were allowed was not very large and did not exceed 1000 lire.

The Italian State Post very early abandoned the carriage of parcels, leaving this matter to private enterprises (messageries)[3]. Since there were significant stocks of stamps from previous issues, and the kingdom was experiencing a shortage of funds, miniatures with a portrait of Victor Emmanuel II remained in circulation for several more years, until December 1889, so some denominations of stamps with a portrait of Umberto I were little used during his reign. In July 1901, the first stamps with a portrait of King Victor Emmanuel III were issued. All miniatures issued during the reign of Umberto I were withdrawn from circulation at the end of September 1902 [9]. According to the International Bureau of the UPU for 1903[13], the density of the postal network in Italy was one post office per 35 sq.

The value of letters and parcels sent by Italian post with a declared value was 2.5 billion francs[3]. In total, 13 types of coupons are known[7][9].

Until 1929, all definitive stamps were issued with the king's portrait or coat of arms. In April 1929, the so-called "Imperiale" series was issued, on the stamps of which images of Kapitthe Olian she-wolf with Romulus and Remus, Julius Caesar, Octavian Augustus and a symbolic image of Italy. During the Second World War, four stamps of this series were issued with coupons and without perforations. The stamps were in circulation until July 1946[5][7][9]. The first series of two commemorative stamps was issued in April 1910 for the 50th anniversary of the liberation of Sicily.

They depicted a portrait of J. In Italy, a significant number of commemorative stamps are issued.

The additional collection went to the benefit of the Red Cross[9]. Black, blue, orange and red were used by the Committee for the Relief of War Victims [7]. Until 1877, Italian stamps were used in San Marino[14]. Italy in World War I Austro-Hungarian occupation Stamp for the city of Udine (1918) In 1918, during the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Italian territories, the military authorities prepared 4 stamps for 18 settlements: Ampezzo, Auronzo di Cadore, Codroipo, Gemona del Friuli, Latisana, Longarone, Maniago, Moggio, Palmanova, Pieve di Cadore, San Daniele del Friuli, San Giorgio di Nogaro, San Pietro al Natisone, Spilimbergo, Tarcento, Tolmezzo, Udine and Cividale del Friuli. Italian fiscal stamps were overprinted with German text. "Ortspostmarke" ("Local Postmark"), the coat of arms of Austria-Hungary, the name of the settlement and the denomination in Italian currency from 1 to 4 centesimo. On the morning of June 15, 1918, the miniatures entered circulation in Udine. However, almost immediately, their implementation was discontinued, since the use of these stamps was prohibited by telegraph order of the main command of the Austro-Hungarian army. Letters franked with stamps issued for Udine are very rare.

Stamps prepared for other settlements were not put into circulation[15][16]. Due to the fact that the postal service in the city was broken on November 28, 1918, the city chamber of commerce organized a local post office to deliver newspapers, parcels and business correspondence. The local printing house printed two series of stamps in denominations of 2 (for newspapers), 5 (for postcards) and 10 hellers (for letters). The stamps of the first series, with the figure of the face value in a curly frame, were printed in sheets of 12 pieces (6 × 2).

Their draws were as follows: 2 hellers - on pink paper 840 pieces (70 sheets); 5 hellers - on green paper 180 pieces 15 sheets; 5 hellers - on olive paper 240 pieces (20 sheets); 10 hellers - on light ultramarine paper 180 pieces (15 sheets); 10 hellers - on ultramarine paper 240 pieces (20 sheets). The second issue was printed on glossy colored paper, with yellowish glue. In the center of the miniatures was the coat of arms of Merano; the 2 heller stamp was printed on green paper, the 5 heller stamp on dark blue paper, and the 10 heller stamp on brick red paper. The local post office closed on December 15, 1918, due to the normalization of the work of the state post office[17][18].

In this regard, in 1918 the City Council issued special stamps with the inscription ital. "Municipio di Udine" (Municipality of Udine) and a framed denomination. The stamps were printed in sheets of 24 pieces (6 × 4), without teeth on one side.

They were extinguished with a purple rubber linear stamp with the inscription "Annullato", and (or) a round purple rubber seal with the inscription "Municipio di Udine" and the coat of arms of the city in the center[7][15]. "Italy" and denomination in Italian monetary units[5][9]. In December 1943, in Naples, three stamps of the standard "Imperial Series" were overprinted with ital. "Governo militare alleato" ("Allied military administration")[5][9]. In 1945, stamps overprinted "AMS" eng.

Italian Social Republic After Italy's withdrawal from World War II, a puppet state, the Italian Social Republic, was created in the north of the country occupied by Nazi Germany. In January 1944, there were releasedWe have our own stamps - Italian standard miniatures from the "Imperial Series" overprinted with the text "Repubblica Sociale Italiana", as well as the text and the lictor beam. In June 1944, a series of 13 definitive stamps of original drawings was issued. In December of the same year, a series of three commemorative stamps dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the death of the Bandier brothers. This was the last issue of the Italian Social Republic[9]. Local releases During the anti-fascist liberation struggle, national liberation committees and individual partisan detachments issued local stamps during the liberation of cities. The miniatures featured frescoes by Nicolò Barabino[en] and Paolo Veronese, paintings by Amos Caszioli[en], Italian churches, etc.

[9] From June 1953 to November 1977, standard stamps were issued with a symbolic image of Italy in a tower crown (medallion from Syracuse) - "Italia turrita [en]". In total, 58 miniatures were issued with this pattern. From December 1978, they began to issue standard stamps "Italia" with a modified design.

In January 2002, the definitive Italia stamps were issued in euro denominations. By 2006, 18 miniatures of this series were issued[7][9]. On the block were placed images of the first stamp of the Sardinian kingdom and the first stamp in the world - "Penny Black"[9].

All stamps issued after November 27, 1973 have an unlimited circulation time. In January 1999, stamps with denominations in Italian lira and euro were issued; since January 2002 - only in euros[5][7][9]. The world's first stereoscopic stamp. The miniature depicted the former governor's mansion and the inscription "Fiume - terra orientale già italiana" ("Fiume - the former eastern Italian territory"). However, Croatia protested, considering this emission offensive. At the request of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Communications postponed the implementation of the scandalous stamp until the dispute was settled. The stamp nevertheless went into circulation on December 10, 2007[19][20][21]. Fancy stamps In December 1956, the Italian Post issued a series of two miniatures to celebrate Italy's admission to the United Nations.

The image of the globe on the stamp is given in such a way that when viewed through special glasses, a stereoscopic effect occurs. These are the first stereoscopic (volumetric) stamps of the world[5][7].

Errors on stamps Main article: Pink Gronky There are errors on some postal issues in Italy. Thus, a 205 lire stamp issued in April 1961, dedicated to the visit of President Gronchi to Peru, provoked a protest from the Peruvian embassy in connection with the incorrect depiction of the border between Peru and Ecuador[5][7]. It has also been noted that a 1957 road safety stamp has a red traffic light at the bottom[5][7][22].

Series of definitive stamps The following is a list of issues of Italian definitive stamps. It was issued on May 20, 1917 for experimental aircraft flights on the route Turin - Rome. On June 27, 1917, a stamp was issued in Italy for the Naples-Palermo airline. To pay for postal correspondence delivered by aircraft of General Italo Balbo from Rome to Chicago, in May 1933, two stamps were issued, consisting of three parts. The stamps were printed in sheets of 20 pieces.

On the left side of each of them is placed the abbreviated name of one of the pilots. Thus, all stamps in the sheet are different. Newspaper The first newspaper stamp in Italy bearing the inscription "Giornali francobollo stampe" was issued in May 1862. It was printed in the printing house of F. Matrera and was a reissue of the newspaper stamp of the Kingdom of Sardinia of 1861 in changed colors.

The stamp was withdrawn from circulation at the end of December 1863[9][28]. In December 1890, the last newspaper stamps were issued. These were the first parcel stamps in Italy overprinted with the text "Valevole / per le stampe" and the new denomination. The stamps were in circulation until December 31, 1891[9]. The first additional stamps with the denomination figure in an oval were printed in the printing house of F.

The last surcharge stamps to date came out in 2001[7][9][29]. They depicted the coat of arms of Italy and the fascia. Usually these stamps were canceled with stamps of the company[7][9]. They depicted the coat of arms of the Savoy dynasty, the Capitoline she-wolf and Italy in a tower crown; at the bottom, a black overprint of the name of the state institution was made on a special field. Similar stamps were issued, in particular, for the Association of Libraries of Bologna, the Roman National Association of War Invalids, etc.

In April 1913, special stamps were issued with the inscription "Posta pneumatica" ("Pneumatic Post"). They were withdrawn from circulation on February 13, 1992[7][9]. The stamps were used until August 7, 1945[7][9].

In the fall of 1940, the French city of Bordeaux became a naval base for the Axis. The 12th submarine flotilla was based here, which, after the surrender of Italy, included the surviving Italian boats.

In November 1943, by order of the Italian command of the base, the stamps of the standard "Imperial Series" were overprinted "Italia Repubblicana Fascista Base Atlantica". In 1944, the text of the overprint was changed to "Repubblica sociale Italiana Base Atlantica". The base ceased to exist at the end of August 1944[7][9]. In October 1943, the National Socialist Republic was created in the Italian Social Republic.

The Republican Guard[en], whose main task was to maintain internal security, in particular, the fight against partisans, as well as the protection of important state facilities[30]. In December 1943 - February 1944, units of the National Republican Guard, located in Verona and Brescia, overprinted G. " ("Guardia nazionale repubblicana is the abbreviated name of the guard)[7][9].

They depicted the profile of King Umberto I and gave the inscription "Pacchi postali" ("Post packages"). The stamps were withdrawn from circulation at the end of December 1890[7][9]. From July 1914, parcel stamps consisting of two parts were put into circulation. The left side was pasted on the form attached to the parcel, and the right side was pasted on the spine remaining with the sender.

The last parcel stamps were issued in March 1973. They were in circulation until February 13, 1992[7][9]. In July 1984, the last stamp of this type was issued.

It differed from the stamps of previous issues in that it did not have a tear-off spine. It was withdrawn from circulation on May 5, 1987[7][9]. On the miniatures in centesimo, the denomination figure was depicted in an ornament, in lira - an angel.

The stamps bear the inscription "Segnatasse Vaglia". They were in circulation for about two years, withdrawn on June 30, 1926[7][9]. Estimated The Italian Post used settlement marks for various purposes. The first ones with the profile of Victor Emmanuel II and the inscription "Biglietti di ricognizione postale" came out in January 1874.

They were in circulation until July 1889[7][9]. In January 1884, settlement stamps were issued for the needs of the postal service. They were used until the end of July 1896. In July 1903 they were reprinted in changed colors. Withdrawn from circulation at the end of June 1911[9].

In July 1913, three stamps were issued with the inscription "Servizio commissioni" ("Cost of services"). These stamps were withdrawn from circulation in March 1925. In April of the same year, they were put back into circulation with an overprint of a new denomination and were used until June 1928[9][31]. They were withdrawn from circulation on December 31, 1876.

In January 1878, the remaining stock was overprinted with a new value and used as newspaper stamps[9]. Express stamps were withdrawn from circulation on May 13, 1992[7][9]. In May 1944, due to the cessation of receipt of stamps from Italy, the municipal council issued its own stamps[de]. The second of seven stamps entered circulation in September 1944. The stamps of both series were given the inscription R. Poste italiane / Comune de Campione, the denomination was indicated in Swiss currency. They were used inside the town and for correspondence in Switzerland[5][7][9]. On June 1, 1952, the Campione stamps were withdrawn from circulation and replaced by Italian stamps for correspondence to Italy and Swiss stamps for correspondence to Switzerland, and in this casethey were canceled at the post office Lugano 1. For international correspondence stamps of Italy or Switzerland were used[5][7][9]. Stamps were issued until 1888, with a total of 17 miniatures[3][9][32]. During the Spanish Civil War, the Italian Corps of Volunteer Forces participated on the side of the rebels.

For its functioning, 12 post offices and three mobile post offices with special stamps were opened. The letters were sent without stamps. A special card was also issued[7]. Three small square stamps were issued.

The post office closed at the end of that year[5][7]. In April-May 1920, during the strike of postal and telegraph employees, the Milan Chamber of Commerce organized a city post office (strikebreaking). Special stamps were issued that were pasted on letters. After a short break due to hostilities, the Koralit postal service resumed its activities in May 1945. Two series of stamps of five denominations were put into circulation.

On the stamps of the first series, the lion of St. Mark is depicted, on the second - a cyclist against the background of a map of Northern Italy.

The stamps were canceled with a round stamp with the name of the company, city and date. In addition, a rectangular stamp of three sections was used. Koralit ceased operations on June 30, 1945[5][7]. "Stamp" with a portrait of V.

Lenin, issue of Marco Fontano (1922) Frauds and fantasy releases Main articles: Virtual state stamps § Seborga, and Virtual state stamps § Republic of Rose Island There are falsifications of the stamps of the Italian kingdom from the "Imperial Series"[7]. Among them, the most popular was a stamp with a face value of 150 thousand rubles, on which Vladimir Lenin was depicted. The Principality of Seborga, a microstate in the province of Liguria, publishes its own stamps for tourism purposes[36]. There are also fantastic stamps of the self-proclaimed microstate Republic of the Rose Island, located on an oil platform in the Adriatic Sea off the coast of Italy[37].

The development of philately Italy has a long philatelic tradition. In the International Federation of Philately, the country is represented by the Federation of Italian Philatelic Societies[it], founded in 1919[38]. Stamp of the USSR with an overprint in honor of the International Philatelic Fair in Riccione, 1960 CFA [Marka JSC] No.

2461 Italian philatelists participate in philatelic forums and exhibitions both at home and abroad. Italy hosts regional, national and international exhibitions. So, in 1985, the philatelic exhibition "Italy-85" was held, the opening of which was timed to coincide with the first Italian postal block.

For example, in 1960 in the USSR, on the occasion of this fair, an overprint was made on one of the stamps of the Olympic series of the same year. In 1975, the Romanian postal department also resorted to overprinting. The text of the overprint on the stamp of Romania from the series "500th Anniversary of the Birth of Michelangelo" read: eng.

Italy 23-25 Augustt; The circulation of the stamp amounted to 60 thousand pieces[40]. Stamps were repeatedly issued for this fair in Pakistan - in 1978 (on the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the event), 1980 and 1982 [41]. Show compactly According to Sassone, Cei and Stanley Gibbons stamp catalogues. Archived from the original on 29 November 2018. [and others]; under total ed.

(Accessed 30 April 2020) Archived copy. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017.

Italy // Philately of the USSR. "Sardinian horses" // Big philatelic dictionary / N. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. European foreign countries / N. (Accessed 22 June 2016) Archived copy. Archived from the original on 10 October 2018. According to information from the Michel catalogue. In different catalogs, stamp No. 1 of Italy is indicated in different ways. For example, the Italian catalogs of the Sassone and Cei stamps, as well as the British catalog Stanley Gibbons, consider the miniature from the fourth definitive issue of the Kingdom of Sardinia to be the first stamp of a united Italy, reprinted with teeth on February 24, 1862. The Scott catalog also considers this miniature to be the first issue of Italy, however, the numbering starts from the first stamp of the Kingdom of Sardinia. The catalogs "Michel" and "Unificato" consider the miniature issued on February 14, 1861 for the province of Naples as stamp No. The Yvert et Tellier catalog is a newspaper stamp issued on May 1, 1862. Archived from the original on 26 September 2019. Effigie di Vittorio Emanuele II (Italian). Archived from the original on 21 September 2019. Published in Postal and Telegraph Journal, 1905, Vol.

Italy // Large Philatelic Dictionary / N. I francobolli di Udine (Italian) (pdf).

The Postal Gazette (January 2008). Archived from the original on December 13, 2017. Ampezzo provisions // Big philatelic dictionary / N. Merano Provisory // Large Philatelic Dictionary / N. Archived from the original on 30 July 2016.

Archived from the original on 13 March 2017. Croatia protests over Italian stamp.

Archived from the original on 13 December 2017. Francobollo per Fiume: una brutta giornata per la filatelia italiana! Archived from the original on 28 August 2012. Città di Fiume: francobolli regolarmente agli sportelli (Italian). It should be noted that the current arrangement of traffic signals was adopted by the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic in 1968, so for the image on the stamp of 1957, this arrangement of signals on a traffic light may be normal.

Date of access: February 15, 2015. Archived from the original on March 20, 2015. Archived from the original on February 15, 2015. According to information from the catalog "Scott". Emesso il 1 maggio 1862 (Italian).

Online catalog of Italian stamps. Archived from the original on February 7, 2019. Cifra e decorazioni, filigrana stelle, dicitura I. Journal of special forces units. Archived from the original on 19 November 2018.

According to information from the catalog "Iver". Italy (Italian Republic) // Philatelic geography (foreign countries): Handbook / L. Archived from the original on June 19, 2020.

(Accessed 19 June 2020) Archived copy. Archived from the original on 19 June 2020. Acquaintance with philately: The world of philately.

Archived from the original on 23 July 2019. Speculation on the Revolution in the RSFSR // Soviet philatelist.

Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Rose Island - A Dream of Freedom // The Cinderella[en] Philatelist. (English) FSFI - Federazione fra le Società Filateliche Italiane (Italian).

Rimini: Federazione fra le Società Filateliche Italiane (August 7, 2015). Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. In the mailboxes of the world.

San Marino // Philately of the USSR. Socialist Republic of Romania // Philately of the USSR.

Italian Stamps: A Handbook for Collectors. The Stamp Atlas: A Unique Assembly of Geography, Social and Political History, and Postal Information.

Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea.

It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. [18] Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century.

In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, [19] beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. [19] Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. [20] The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'.

[21][22] Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. [23] The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, [24][25] and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.

The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. [26][27][28] Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and sole successor state of the Soviet Union. [29] It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015.

[30] Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, [31] making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. [32][33] The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. [34] Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, as well as a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. History Timeline Proto-Indo-Europeans Scythians East Slavs Rus' Khaganate Kievan Rus' Novgorod Republic Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy of Moscow Tsardom of Russia Russian Empire Russian Republic Russian SFSR Soviet Union Russian Federation By topic Economy Military Journalism?

Postal Coat of Arms of the Russian Federation. Svg Geography Subdivisions Borders Earthquakes Geology European Russia Caucasus Mountains North Caucasus Caspian Sea Ural Mountains West Siberian Plain Siberia Russian Far East North Asia Extreme points Cities and towns Islands Lakes Rivers Volcanoes Climate Mountains Politics Conscription Constitution Elections Presidential elections Federal budget Foreign relations Freedom of assembly Freedom of press Media Government Human rights Judiciary Law Citizenship Civil Service Law enforcement (Prisons) Liberalism Military Opposition Political parties President of Russia Economy Agriculture Aircraft industry Car industry Banking Central Bank Corruption Defence industry Economic regions Energy Fishing industry Forestry Gambling Mining Petroleum industry Russian ruble Russian oligarchs Space industry Shipbuilding Trade unions Taxation Tourism Transport Telecommunications Waste Society Demographics Citizens Abortion Alcoholism Crime Education Healthcare Ethnic groups Languages LGBT Immigration Illegal Prostitution Racism Religion Suicide Water supply and sanitation Women Culture Architecture Art Literature Ballet Cinema Graffiti Inventions Media Music Public holidays Opera Language Cuisine Martial arts Folklore Television Internet National anthem Coat of arms National flag Sports Outline Book Category Portal [hide] v t e Russian souvenirs, arts and crafts Matryoshka Samovar Handicrafts Gorodets painting Gzhel Filimonovo toy Kholmogory bone carving Khokhloma Russian lacquer art Fedoskino miniature Kholuy miniature Mstyora miniature Palekh miniature Russian icons Zhostovo painting Ushanka Balalaika Tableware Table-glass Podstakannik Russian porcelain Dulyovo porcelain Samovar Clothing Afghanka Budenovka Cherkeska French Gymnastyorka Kokoshnik Kosovorotka Kaftan Lapti Orenburg shawl Papakha Peaked cap Podvorotnichok Sailor cap Sarafan Spetsodezhda Telnyashka Ushanka Valenki Musical instruments Balalaika Garmon Bayan Russian guitar Musical spoons Treshchotka Toys Bird of Happiness Cheburashka Filimonovo toy Dymkovo toys Kargopol toys Matryoshka doll Petrushka Other Izba Fabergé egg Shashka Tula pryanik [hide] v t e Russia Subdivisions of Russia Federal subjects Republics Adygea Altai Bashkortostan Buryatia Chechnya Chuvashia Crimea1 Dagestan Ingushetia Kabardino-Balkaria Kalmykia Karachay-Cherkessia Karelia Khakassia Komi Mari El Mordovia North Ossetia-Alania Sakha Tatarstan Tuva Udmurtia Krais Altai Kamchatka Khabarovsk Krasnodar Krasnoyarsk Perm Primorsky Stavropol Zabaykalsky Oblasts Amur Arkhangelsk Astrakhan Belgorod Bryansk Chelyabinsk Irkutsk Ivanovo Kaliningrad Kaluga Kemerovo Kirov Kostroma Kurgan Kursk Leningrad Lipetsk Magadan Moscow Murmansk Nizhny Novgorod Novgorod Novosibirsk Omsk Orenburg Oryol Penza Pskov Rostov Ryazan Sakhalin Samara Saratov Smolensk Sverdlovsk Tambov Tomsk Tula Tver Tyumen Ulyanovsk Vladimir Volgograd Vologda Voronezh Yaroslavl Federal cities Moscow St. Svg Geographic locale [hide] v t e Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe Sovereign states Albania Andorra Armenia2 Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus2 Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland1 Ireland Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City Europe orthographic Caucasus Urals boundary (with borders). Svg States with limited recognition Abkhazia2 Artsakh2 Kosovo Northern Cyprus2 South Ossetia2 Transnistria Dependencies Denmark Faroe Islands1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark United Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia2 Sovereign Base Areas Gibraltar British Overseas Territory Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Crown dependencies Special areas of internal sovereignty Finland Åland Islands autonomous region subject to the Åland Convention of 1921 Norway Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty United Kingdom Northern Ireland country of the United Kingdom subject to the British-Irish Agreement 1 Oceanic islands within the vicinity of Europe are usually grouped with the continent even though they are not situated on its continental shelf.

2 Some countries completely outside the conventional geographical boundaries of Europe are commonly associated with the continent due to ethnological links. [hide] v t e Countries and dependencies of Asia Abkhazia Afghanistan Akrotiri and Dhekelia Armenia Artsakh Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cyprus Egypt Georgia Hong Kong India British Indian Ocean Territory Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Macau Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Northern Cyprus Oman Palestine Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore South Ossetia Sri Lanka Syria Taiwan Tajikistan Thailand East Timor (Timor-Leste) Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen Asia (orthographic projection). Svg [hide] v t e Countries bordering the Baltic Sea Denmark Estonia Finland Germany Latvia Lithuania Poland Russia Sweden [hide] v t e Black Sea Countries bordering the Black Sea Bulgaria Georgia Romania Russia Turkey Ukraine Cities Batumi Burgas Constan? A Giresun Hopa Istanbul Kerch Mangalia Navodari Novorossiysk Odessa Ordu Poti Rize Samsun Sevastopol Sochi Sukhumi1 Trabzon Varna Yalta Zonguldak 1 Disputed statehood - partial international recognition, but considered by most countries to be Georgian territory.

[hide] International organizations [hide] v t e Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Nations Australia Brunei Canada Chile China Hong Kong¹ Indonesia Japan South Korea Malaysia Mexico New Zealand Papua New Guinea Peru Philippines Russia Singapore Chinese Taipei² Thailand United States Vietnam Summits 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Other APEC Business Travel Card APEC blue APEC Climate Center APEC Youth Science Festival 1. A special administrative region of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China"; 2. Blue: Later (current) full members.

Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Saudi Arabia Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Sri Lanka Suriname Swaziland Switzerland Tajikistan Taiwan2 Tanzania Thailand Togo Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tunisia Turkey Uganda Ukraine United Arab Emirates United States Uruguay Venezuela Vietnam Yemen Zambia Zimbabwe European Union Austria Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom Special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, participates as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". Jus (About this sound listen), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Russian:??? Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: s? K (About this sound listen), abbreviated as the USSR Russian:???? SSSR, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, [a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent and Novosibirsk. The Soviet Union was one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. [7] It was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) and the Warsaw Pact. The Soviet Union had its roots in the October Revolution of 1917, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, after a civil war, the Soviet Union was formed with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s. Under Stalin's leadership, the Soviet Union transitioned from a market economy into a centrally planned economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. As industrial production skyrocketed, the Soviet Union achieved full employment, implemented a universal healthcare system, sharply reduced illiteracy, and provided guarantees of paid vacations, rest homes, and recreational clubs. This period of industrialization was a time of enormous improvements in the standard of living for millions of people in the country, starkly contrasting with the situations of other countries during the Great Depression, but was also a time characterized by major institutional shortcomings and failures.

In the 1930s, with the rise of fascism in Europe, the Communist Party pursued aggressive campaigns to suppress potential counter-revolution, fermenting political paranoia which culminated in the Great Purge in which extrajudicial arrests and executions of suspected counter-revolutionaries led to an estimated 600,000 deaths. As a result of these mass arrests, penal labor through the Gulag system was used to construct infrastructure projects, though this consistently proved to be an inefficient system throughout its existence. [8] Increased demand for agricultural products to pay for industrialization combined with a relatively low harvest yield led to the famine of 1932-33 in which an estimated 2.4 to 4 million people died in the country's agricultural centers of Ukraine, southern Russia, and Kazakhstan. [9][10] After the rise of Adolf Hitler in Germany, Stalin tried repeatedly to form an anti-fascist alliance with other European countries.

However, finding no support, shortly before World War II, the Soviet Union became the last major country to sign a treaty with Germany with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, after which the two countries invaded Poland in September 1939. In June 1941, the pact collapsed as Germany invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk.

The territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union; the postwar division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the West, led by the United States. The Cold War emerged by 1947, as the Eastern Bloc, united under the Warsaw Pact in 1955, confronted the Western Bloc, united under NATO in 1949. On 5 March 1953, Stalin died and was quickly succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the De-Stalinization of Soviet society through the Khrushchev Thaw. The Soviet Union took an early lead in the Space Race, with the first artificial satellite and the first human spaceflight.

Khrushchev was removed from power by his colleagues in 1964 and was succeeded as head of state by Leonid Brezhnev. In the 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet-Afghan War in 1979. In the mid-1980s, the last Soviet leader, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost (government transparency) and perestroika (openness, restructuring). Under Gorbachev, the role of the Communist Party in governing the state was removed from the constitution, causing a surge of severe political instability to set in. The Cold War ended during his tenure, and in 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments. With the rise of strong nationalist and separatist movements inside the union republics, Gorbachev tried to avert a dissolution of the Soviet Union in the post-Cold War era. A March 1991 referendum, boycotted by some republics, resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.

Gorbachev's power was greatly diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin played a high-profile role in facing down an abortive August 1991 coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the remaining twelve constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states. The Russian Federation-formerly the Russian SFSR-assumed the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and is recognized as the successor state of the Soviet Union. [11][12][13] In summing up the international ramifications of these events, Vladislav Zubok stated: The collapse of the Soviet empire was an event of epochal geopolitical, military, ideological and economic significance.

Soviet Union topics History Index of Soviet Union-related articles Russian Revolution February October Russian Civil War Russian SFSR USSR creation treaty New Economic Policy Stalinism Great Purge Great Patriotic War (World War II) Cold War Khrushchev Thaw 1965 reform Stagnation Perestroika Glasnost Revolutions of 1989 Dissolution Nostalgia Post-Soviet states State Emblem of the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union officially recognized their independence on September 6, 1991, prior to its final dissolution three months later. [hide] v t e Flag of the Soviet Union. 2 Kazak ASSR was called Kirghiz ASSR until 1925.

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